2001 was originally to open with a series of interviews with scientists. This scientist who filmed one of those interviews, talked Kubrick out of showing any aliens in the film. This scientist is erroneously credited with his eponymous standard Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. As an undergrad he worked under Nobel Laureate Hermann "radiation causes mutation" Muller and Harold "former partner with Stanley Miller" Urey, and later was one of the four primary co-founders of the Planetary Society. Identify this Pulitzer Prize winning author and scientist, allegedly the name sake of a unit of measure representing a large number, at least 4 billion in magnitude.